The nomenclature of publishing activities within the framework of creative and cultural industry

The nomenclature of publishing activities within the framework of creative and cultural industry

Nives Tomašević,

Libellarium, VI, 1 – 2 (2013).

Proceeding of the International conference Publishing – trends and contents, Pula, Croatia, 6-7 December, 2013


This paper analyses the nomenclature basis of publishing activities in the Republic of Croatia and the EU, and deals with the challenges of future comparative studies dealing with the structure of classifications. Creative and cultural industries are trying to find the optimal classification to define, track and direct creative/cultural activities. In some EU countries, the classification frames are in line with the stated classification, although some countries are still searching for nomenclature solutions. Studies of the nomenclature structure of cultural and creative industry are being conducted, and some of them are the framework of this paper (ESSnet – Culture 2011 and 2012). The publishing activity is classified according to the National Classification of Activities of the Republic of Croatia (NKD 2007 – The Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia 58/2007) as class 58, and related activities are also classified: “book publishing” (58.11), “publishing of address books and lists of users’ addresses” (58.12), “publishing of newspapers” (58.13), “publishing of magazines and periodic publications” (58.14), “other publishing activities” (58.15).

Keywords: nomenclature, classification, cultural and creative industry, publishing.

1. Introduction

Expressions such as “creative and cultural economics” are quite recent, and they are challenging to researchers from various scientific disciplines, as well as to anyone involved in cultural and creative industry. The cultural and creative sectors are a significant driver of growth and job creation in Europe, the key source of creativity and innovation, and a significant contributor to social cohesion and well-being (European Commission, Culture, 2009). Creative economics is a complex research topic, mostly because symbolic products possess both a material and an intangible value, which increases their social influence (Primorac 2002).

There are various definitions of the cultural and creative industry, but the most popular are the definitions by UNESCO and the European Commission. The UNESCO definition states that

Culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs (UNESCO 2001).

The European Commission Green Paper (2010) defines cultural and creative industries as follows:

Cultural industries are those industries producing and distributing goods or services which at the time they are developed are considered to have a specific attribute, use or purpose which embodies or conveys cultural expressions, irrespective of the commercial value they may have. Creative industries are those industries which use culture as an input and have a cultural dimension, although their outputs are mainly functional. They include architecture and design, which integrate creative elements into wider processes, as well as subsectors such as graphic design, fashion design or advertising.

Furthermore, UNCTAD (2004) states that the cultural industry is subordinate to the creative industry, while the copyright industry includes both the creative and the distribution industry. In his book, The Cultural Industries, Hesmondhalgh (2002) examines the importance of culture industries. He reached the following conclusion – “The importance of the cultural industries in modern societies rests on three related elements: their ability to make and circulate products that influence our knowledge, understanding and experience (texts); their role as systems for the management of creativity and knowledge; and their effects as agents of economic, social and cultural change” (Hesmondhalagh 2002: 4). The European Commission also recognized the importance of culture in the economy, and in 2009 formed a working group ESSnet – Culture, which is within EUROSTAT's jurisdiction. The goal of this working group is to revise (amend, change or create) and update the nomenclatures associated with culture.

The aim of this paper is to explore the existence and the level of development of nomenclatures in publishing as one of the parts of cultural industry, and to show the benefits of their existence and detailed development. Therefore, the nomenclature systems used in the Republic of Croatia, and in the field of culture in the EU are explained, and finally, the nomenclature settings related to publishing are compared, together with their advantages and shortcomings.

2. Nomenclatures

The assembly or list of names, used in a particular field of science, art or technology is considered a nomenclature (Klaić 2004). Nomenclatures are necessary in order to list and clearly describe a system, in order to avoid mistakes, misinterpretations or confusion (Kern and Petrovečki 2009). According to these generalized definitions, one might say that publishing generally deals with nomenclatures.

2.1. The Development of a nomenclature system in the Republic of Croatia – NKD

National Classification of Activities (NKD) is a classification of all economic activities in the Republic of Croatia and it is used for the collection, registration, processing, publishing and the dissemination of statistical data (The Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia 103/03). NKD was formed by the Central Bureau of Statistics in 1994, based on the economic activities of the European Union (NACE Rev. 1), which ensured the comparability of statistical data of the Republic of Croatia with that of the European Union, as well as with the data available on the global level. Every change of classification of NACE is synchronized with an identical change of the NKD, and so far, it has had two revised versions published, in Croatia and in the European Union:

  1. NKD 2002 (created after the new European classification - NACE Rev. 1. 1.)
  2. NKD 2007 (created after the new European classification - NACE Rev. 2)

The National Classification of Activities (NKD 2002 – The Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia 52/2003) classified publishing as number/class 2211, and all of the subclasses explain what is considered as publishing in the Republic of Croatia. Class 22 classifies the publishing and printing activity, the publishing of newspapers, magazines and other periodical publications. According to the NKD 2002, the units (publishers) publish the working copies, usually under copyright. The works can be in one or multiple formats, including the traditional printed form, sound recording, CD-ROM or direct access to data (“online”). The NKD 2007 classifications harmonized with the NACE Rev. 2 classification, both in structure and in content, portrays the actual economic situation in Croatia, through a comparison with the economic data of other European countries (The Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia 103/03). In the classification of activities, the NKD 2007 (and corresponding NACE Rev. 2) is currently applied. This classification and the published statistical data are analysed in the subsequent sections of this paper. The main difference between the NKD 2007 and its 2002 predecessor is the new division of classes which previously had five levels, i.e. five-digit numbers.

In order to comprehend NKD 2007, it is necessary to distinguish its areas of activities (marked by a single-digit number), followed by-sections (marked by a two-digit number), groups (marked by a three-digit number), and finally classes of action (marked by a four-digit number). For example, the activity “Book Publishing” is marked by the code 58.11, whereby 58 is the code of the section, 58.1 the code of the group, and 58.11 the code of the class (Book Publishing). Furthermore, this code belongs to area J (Information and Communication), although this association is not visible in the written part of the code of activity. In the next section of this paper we will clarify the publishing nomenclatures in the Republic of Croatia and the availability of official publishing-related data.

2.1.1. Publishing nomenclatures in the Republic of Croatia

Since Croatian independence was established, the publishing nomenclatures have had two revisions since the first version of NKD from 1994. The first revision dealt with the settings of the nomenclature system in the Republic of Croatia, called NKD 2002, and the second one with the settings of the nomenclatural system in the Republic of Croatia, called NKD 2007. Table 1 features explained nomenclatural publishing categories from the nomenclature system NKD 2007.

Table 1: Separate activities from NKD 2007 – publishing (source: author's creation using NKD 2007, Croatian Bureau of Statistics and NKD 2008 with Explanations, Croatian Bureau of Statistics)_

NKD 2007. NACE rev.2. Clarification of importance of nomenclatural number for publishing activity
18. Printing and reproduction of recorded media
18.1. Printing and service activities related to printing
This group often includes printed products such as newspapers, books, periodic publications, business forms, greeting cards and other materials, and also the associated ancillary activity such as bookbinding, fabrication of printing forms and data display.
18.11. Printing of newspapers 18.11.
18.12. Other printing 18.12. Printing of books and brochures, musical works and musical manuscripts, maps, atlases, prospects and other printed ads, calendars, etc.
18.13. Pre-press and pre-media services 18.13. - data entry activities: preparation of printing form, modifying the look of the text, modifying the image, entry data, including scanning and recognition of optical properties, electronic appearance
- preparing data files for application on various media (paper printing, CD – ROM, internet)
- document creating, computer publishing, and other similar activities
- preparation of cylinders: engraving or etching the cylinders for engravings
- processing of plates: “from a computer on to a plate” (also photopolymer boards)
- preparation of plates and matrixes for layout etching and printing
- preparation: sketches, samples, etc. and manufacturing prints for proofreading
18.14. Binding and related services 18.14. - binding of the printed pages, making of samples and extra printing, such as binding of books, brochures, magazines, catalogues, etc., stacking, cutting, merging, stitching
- drilling, cutting and setting up of front page, sticking, comparing, gold print, spiral binding, and binding by plastic wire
- binding an finsihing of printed paper of cardboard, stacking, orinting, drilling, hole punching, perforation, layout printing, sticking, laminating
finished works on CD – ROM
- finishing postal works such as standardization, preparation of envelopes and addressing
58. Publishing activities
58.1. Publishing of books, periodic publications and other publishing activities
This group includes activities of publishing books, newspapers, magazines and other types of reading, phone books and lists of user's address and other types of material, such as photographs, engravings, postcards, timetables, forms, posters and reproductions of art works. These works are characterized by intellectual creativity which is necessary during their making, and it is usually protected by copyrights.
58.11. Book publishing 58.11. Book publishing in printed, electronic (CD, electronic display, etc.) or in audio-form or internet. Therefore, this class includes: publishing of books, brochures, fliers and similar publications, including the publishing of dictionaries and encyclopaedias, publishing of atlases, geographic and other maps, publishing of audio-books, publishing of encyclopaedias, etc. on a CD - ROM
58.12. Publishing of directories and mailing lists 58.12.
58.13. Publishing of newspapers 58.13.
58.14. Publishing of journals and periodicals 58.14.
58.19. Other publishing activities 58.19. Publishing (including internet publishing) of: catalogues, photographs, engravings and postcards, greeting cards, forms, posters, artwork reproductions, promotional materials, remaining print forms and publishing of statistical data and other information on the internet.
47.6. Retail sale of cultural and recreation goods in specialised stores
47.61. Retail sale of books in specialised stores 47.61. Retail of books of all kinds (this class excludes retail of used and antique books)

Table 1 gives a brief overview of the nomenclatural data important in publishing activity. The first column contains the codes of publishing activity classes, or of publishing-related activities. The matter at hand are class 18 (Print and multiplication of recorded writings), class 58 (Publishing activities), and class 47.6 (Retail of products associated with culture and recreation in specialized stores). The second column states nomenclatural marks of identical activities in the nomenclature NACE Rev. 2. The third and the fourth columns of Table 1 clarify which publishing activities the selected class involves.

2.1.2. The availability of official data associated with publishing in the Republic of Croatia

When analysing Croatian publications containing publishing-related data, the Statistical Yearbook stands out as it contains the data regarding _Culture, art and sports in Chapter 28. The section of this publication containing methodological explanations states that data relating to culture, art and sports is collected periodically – once a year in every three to five years. The exception is the data related to books, brochures, newspapers and magazines published annually by the National and University Library and presented by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Collecting publishing data, according to the Statistical Yearbook (Croatian Bureau of Statistics 2012: 495) includes book publishing, brochures, newspapers and magazines. Data regarding books and brochures relates to the first two editions and the repeated editions (Figure 1), and to works published in co-production with a foreign publisher (Figure 2).

The number of total and first editions of books and brochures_ _from_ _1998_ _to_ _2010

Figure 1: The number of total and first editions of books and brochures from 1998 to 2010 (sources: Statistical Yearbook Republic of Croatia 2012: 498; Statistical Yearbook 2003: 476)_

The number of total and Croatian editions of books and brochures_ _from_ _1998_ _to_ _2010

Figure 2: The number of total and Croatian editions of books and brochures from 1998 to 2010 (sources: Statistical Yearbook Republic of Croatia 2012: 498; Statistical Yearbook 2003: 476)

Until 1991, the Statistical Yearbooks contained data on the annual editions of the publishers along with the title’s print run. After 1991, the data on the print run is no longer published (National and University Library does not have the information on the number of copies sold by a publisher). The comprehensive edition of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics on culture and arts is contained in the 1997 publication Culture and Arts. However, it does not contain data on book and brochure publishing. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics publishes the official statistical data for the Republic of Croatia, including the collective data on the number of titles published annually, and the data on published books and brochures by UDC groups. According to the last available report (Statistical Report 8.3.1., Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 – Appendix 1), the largest number of titles is published in the category Languages. Literature (Figure 3).

Published books and brochures in 2010_ _by UDC_ _groups

Figure 3: Published books and brochures in 2010 by UDC groups (source: Edited books and brochures, newspapers and magazines in the year 2010. First release 8. 3. 1., Croatian Bureau of Statistics 2011)_

According to Figure 3, the group with the largest number of edited books and brochures can be easily identified. The groups subordinate to the Language and Literature group (Appendix 1), contain 119 published books and brochures, 1,827 published in the Science of Literature, Literature in General and Fiction, one in German Literature and three or four books / brochures in the Slavic and Baltic Literature. The fact causing disputes regarding the available publishing statistics is that there is no data relating to publishers, the number of books according to literary genre, the publisher’s expenses/transactions, the number of publishers, etc. In the following section (2.2) EU nomenclature is examined, and the availability of data published by relevant statistical institutions of the European Union.

2.2. Culture and Nomenclature in the EU

Statistical analyses conducted and based on the NACA nomenclatural frame enable comparability between the European and the global level, since they are harmonized with the UN’s International Standard Classification of Activities (ISIC). The complete list of cultural activities within NACE Rev. 2 system is a part of the developed ESSnet – Culture group within the project European Framework for Cultural Statistics. Eurostat is the main statistical office of the European Union, ensuring reliable and comparable data for EU member countries when it comes to the gathering and analysis of statistical data. The EU Eurostat also relies on the European Statistical System – ESS. The ESS is a partnership between the Community statistical authority (Commission (Eurostat)), the national statistical institutes (NSIs) and other national authorities in each Member State responsible for the development, production and dissemination of European statistics (this Partnership also includes the EEA and EFTA countries). Since culture is not among the main areas of Eurostat’s publishing activity, key reports for culture in the European Union are published by ESS in their ESSnet – Culture (European Statistical System Network on Culture) reports. Since the field of culture has no reliable or comparable statistics on the European level, it is still not possible to speak of its real contribution to the economic and social development. This is why Eurostat formed a working body ESSnet – Culture 2009.

2.2.2. ESS Culture

Eurostat's project ESSnet – Culture was initiated in 2009, publishing final reports under European Statistical System Network on Culture reports. In this chapter, we will focus on some of the conclusions this working body presented. The ESSnet – Culture final report is the result of the common efforts of the Task Forces, statisticians and European experts in the field of cultural statistics and policy, especially representatives from Ministries of Culture, National Statistical Offices and the European Commission (ESSnet – Culture 2012). The working group aims to research and make suggestions for the following issues:

  1. Framework of cultural statistics and definitions,
  2. Public financing and private expenditure on culture,
  3. Cultural industries and cultural employment,
  4. Cultural practices and social aspects.

The first point the ESS deals with is also the focus of this paper; it relates to determining the proper framework and definitions which could enable the unified tracking of the remaining three culture-related issues. The ESS working group is aiming towards a universal definition of culture and the creative industry. This project as well as solid definitions of culture would greatly benefit the cultural politics of all EU countries.

Table 2: Summary of the national approaches of Creative and Cultural Industries (source: KEA, ESSnet – Culture (2012: 133)

Creative industries approach Copyright industries approach Experience economy approach Sector approach, Cultural industries or sector specific studies
Austria Denmark (2006) Sweden (2004) French Community of Belgium
Flemish Community Finland Denmark (2003) France
Of Belgium Hungary Ireland
Denmark (2000) Latvia (2005) Luxembourg
Estonia Norway Poland
Latvia (2005) Portugal
Lithuania Slovak Republic
Sweden (2002) Spain
United Kingdom

Table 2 confirms the need for unification of all culture-related definitions. Every EU member state understands the concepts of culture and creative industry differently. It is possible to conclude that the concept of creative and culture industry is relatively new to all member states, and should be further examined in a unified manner. Bouqillon (2011) states that just like the European statistical framework, the cultural and creative industries require a practical approach based on clear and quantifiable concepts that can lead to a consensus at the EU level.

2.2.3. Publishing and market – nomenclatural settings and available data in the EU

Indicators associated with culture imply consulting the entire set of (existing) nomenclatures. Some of them are: NACE (NACE Rev. 2), ISCO (International Standard Classification of Occupations), ISCED (The International Standard Classification of Education), COICOP – HBS (Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose used for Household Budget Surveys), The Combined Nomenclature (CN8), CPA (Classification of Products by Activity). The subsequent sections of this paper explore the existence of data connecting publishing and the market. This data is not available within the framework of official statistics of the Republic of Croatia (2. 1. 2.), while they have been published cumulatively for every EU member state in the Culturalstatistics publication.

Culturalstatistics – Eurostat's pocketbook

The Cultural pocketbook presents complementary information on cultural issues of a less statistical nature, which can provide additional insight: information on cultural heritage has been included to compensate the lack of harmonized data in this domain and data on the perception of culture was taken from a Eurobarometer poll (European Union 2011). Statistics on culture cover many aspects of economic and social life. In addition to the information listed above, this publication includes data on cultural participation and private cultural expenditure, taken from surveys conducted every few years. Figure 4 presents the data on household spending on cultural goods and services taken from the Household Budget Survey from 2005. Household Budget Survey (HBS) data is collected according to the COICOP classification adapted to HBS needs (COICOP – HBS). This figure includes data on total expenditure, expenditure in culture, and expenditure on books (COICOP – HBS: – Books).

Average annual expenditure on cultural goods and services per household (PPS) – comparison between EU countries and EU 27 average

Figure 4: Average annual expenditure on cultural goods and services per household (PPS) – comparison between EU countries and EU 27 average (source: Culturalstatistics, Eurostat, 2011: 203)

Figure 4 shows a cumulative overview of expenditure on cultural goods and services in European households. Also, this expenditure is compared with the average of 27 members of European Union. If we observe the data for the Republic of Croatia, we can see that the Croatian index of comparison is 67.1%, i.e. Croatian households spend 32.9% less on cultural goods and services than average European households. Also, it is clear that Irish households spend most on culture (190.3), while Bulgarian (16.22) and Romanian (17.45) households spend the least.

Average annual expenditure on books in households (PPS) – comparison between EU countries with EU 27 average

Figure 5: Average annual expenditure on books in households (PPS) – comparison between EU countries with EU 27 average (source: Culturalstatistics, Eurostat, 2011: 203)

Figure 5 shows expenditure of European households for books as a specific type of cultural goods. Although Croatia ranks below the EU 27 average when it comes to spending on cultural goods, in general when it comes to book consumption, Croatian households spend 16.7% more than EU 27 average.

3. Discussion and recommendations

This paper emphasizes the problems resulting from inconsistent definitions of the cultural/creative industry. According to their understanding and application of key concepts of culture and creative industry, EU member states can be divided into four groups.

Harmonized definitions are the basis of statistical comparison on European and world levels, but the extent of culture-related publishing data available on a national level can also be problematic. There is also the question of why there is not enough culture-related data published. One of reasons lies in the current nomenclatural settings (and inconsistencies) associated with culture. It should be mentioned that the new version of the classification of economic activities (NACE Rev.2), recently implemented in many surveys in Europe, allows for a better coverage of cultural sectors, although the level of detail in the collected data is not always sufficient for a clear picture of all cultural activities (Eurostat 2011). Also, the final report of ESSnet – Culture includes the following recommendations associated with NACE nomenclature:

  • providing a better coverage of the cultural sector in European surveys (in terms of all cultural classes of the NACE Rev.2)
    • requesting a more detailed level of classifications (NACE, ISCO) in harmonized surveys (e.g. in the EU-LFS) so that cultural activities and cultural occupations can be identified better.
  • The shortcomings of the existing nomenclatures used for the classification of culture/creative activity are the reason behind insufficient data publications associated with culture, and publishing. The lack of strategic information (available daily and through mediation of public statistical services) is necessary for successful publishing activities (number of published/sold editions according to literature types, sales of the specific types of literature works, number of published electronic/paper publications, etc.).

The other downside of publisher nomenclatures is the absence of national working groups (bodies) which would research problems of national (Croatian) culture, keep track of nomenclatures and develop measurements adjusted to culture/creative industry, i.e. collect more detailed data on culture/creative industry for revision and have a clearer structure of the mentioned data. The current state of data publication in Croatia relies only on general and cumulative culture-related data. The data published by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics in its publications (Statistical Yearbook and Culture and Arts), often does not cover all areas which should be covered. When it comes to the comparability of national data with EU data, there are more extensive statistics available (CulturalStatistics and ESSnet – Culture) where statistics associated with culture of all EU members’ states are compared. However, that is still only general data which should also be published in more detail and on the national level. As it can be observed from currently available data, nomenclatural settings are associated with the cultural sector. Only the data in the publications by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, based on the 2007 NKD classification is available in the official statistics in the Republic of Croatia.

If properly directed, data related to culture and creative economy (esp. on a national level) would increase the interest of the public, companies, associations, state and local organizations, whose range of business activities depends on culture/creative industry. Understanding the indicators which link publishing to the cultural/creative sector in the national and European contexts would enable the emergence of a clear strategy. Systems of constructed and harmonized nomenclatures are foundations for corrective and emergency measures, and an argument for the planning of future – the future of publishing, as much as the future of the entire sector of culture and creative industry.


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Appendix 1: Published books and brochures by UDC groups in 2010

Source: Published books and brochures, newspapers and magazines in 2010, First Reports 8. 3. 1., Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011.

Books and Brochures
Total First edition Re-edition
7 348 6 531 817 Total
6 356 5 636 720 Classified according to UDC groups – total
232 214 18 General groups
138 124 14 Prolegomena, science about science, standardisation and standards, information theory, cybernetics, culture and civilisation
25 25 - Librarianship, library science
1 1 - General encyclopaedias, lexicons, manuals
1 1 - General periodical issues, magazines, chronicles, address books, almanacs, calendars
40 36 4 Organisations and other types of co-operation, societies, congresses, exhibitions, museums
9 9 - Newspapers, the press, journalism
18 18 - Polygraphies, complete works
269 250 19 Philosophy. Psychology
29 29 - History of philosophy
6 6 - Metaphysics
27 26 1 Philosophy of mind and spirit, metaphysics of spiritual life
28 26 2 Philosophical systems and points of view
165 150 15 Psychology
2 2 - Logic, cognitive theory, methodology of logic
12 11 1 Ethics, morality, practical philosophy
472 396 76 Religion. Theology
9 9 - Natural religions, theodicy
24 17 7 Bible
407 340 67 Christianity, Christian churches
32 30 2 Non-Christian religions, mythologies
1495 1142 353 Social sciences
12 12 - Theories, methodology and methods of social sciences in general. Sociography
67 61 6 Statistics, demography, sociology
128 120 8 Politics
181 155 26 Economy, economic sciences
167 150 17 Law
87 82 5 Public administration, military affairs in general, military science, civil defence
53 48 5 Social welfare and aid, insurance
732 448 284 Education, teaching, leisure
68 66 2 Ethnology, ethnography, folk customs, folk art
175 167 8 Mathematics. Life sciences
38 38 - Nature, exploration and protection of nature, natural heritage, environmental science, ecology in general
28 25 3 Mathematics, computer programming, cybernetics, operational research
18 17 1 Astronomy, astrophysics, space exploration, geodesy
12 11 1 Physics
13 13 - Chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy
19 19 - Geology and related sciences, meteorology, hydrology
4 4 - Palaeontology
43 40 3 Biology, botany, zoology
745 671 74 Applied sciences. Medicine. Technology
295 269 26 Medical sciences
78 70 8 Engineering, technology in general
83 82 1 Agriculture and related sciences and technology
114 95 19 Catering and hotel management, domestic science
132 115 17 Management and organisation of work in industry, trade and transport, telecommunications
24 23 1 Chemical engineering and technology, metallurgy
7 7 - Light industry and crafts (leather, textile, paper, plastics, rubber, stone)
5 4 1 Mechanical technology (machines and tools), fine mechanics, optics, light industry and crafts, (furniture, footwear, clothes, musical instruments)
7 6 1 Construction works and crafts, safety measures on constructions, construction materials
650 633 17 Art. Entertainment. Sports
68 67 1 Theory of arts
13 12 1 Physical planning, urbanism, regional planning, garden architecture
40 38 2 Architecture
33 33 - Sculpture and related arts
176 174 2 Drawing, design, applied arts and crafts
100 98 2 Visual art
12 12 - Graphic art
26 25 1 Photography
61 56 5 Music
121 118 3 Theatre, film, entertainment and leisure, dances, games, sports
1950 1815 135 Languages. Literature
119 106 13 Linguistics. Philology
1827 1705 122 Literature science. Literature in general. Fiction
1 1 - Germanic literature
3 3 - Slavic and Baltic literature
368 348 20 Geography. Biographies. History
199 188 11 Archaeology, regional studies, homeland expertness
10 10 - Geography
31 29 2 Biographies. Genealogy. Heraldry
128 121 7 History
992 895 97 Not classified according to UDC groups


Nomenklatura nakladničkih aktivnosti u sklopu kreativne i kulturne industrije

U radu se analizira temeljna nomenklatura nakladničkih aktivnosti u Republici Hrvatskoj i u Europskoj Uniji, te se bavi izazovima budućih komparativnih studija koje se bave strukturom klasifikacije. Kreativne i kulturne industrije pokušavaju iznaći optimalnu klasifikaciju kojom bi se kreativne/kulturne aktivnosti definirale, pratile i usmjeravale. Klasifikacijski okviri u nekim su državama EU suglasni oko navedenih razvrstavanja, a u drugima se tek traže nomenklaturna rješenja. O nomenklaturnom ustroju kulturne i kreativne industrije izrađuju se studije, a samo neke od njih okvir su ovoga rada (ESSnet-Culture 2011. i 2012.). Nakladnička je djelatnost razvrstana prema Nacionalnoj klasifikaciji djelatnosti Republike Hrvatske (NKD 2007 – NN 58/2007.) kao razred 58 „izdavačka djelatnost“, a uz nju se navode ostale aktivnosti: „izdavanje knjiga“ (58.11), „izdavanje imenika i popisa korisničkih adresa“ (58.12), „izdavanje novina“ (58.13), „izdavanje časopisa i periodičnih publikacija“ (58.14), „ostala izdavačka djelatnost“ (58.15).

Ključne riječi: nomenklatura, klasifikacija, kulturna i kreativna industrija.


  1. Within same classification there is a separate subclass “book publishing” classified as 22.11.0. This subclass contains publishing of books, brochures, prospects, and similar publications, which also includes publishing of dictionaries and encyclopaedias, and publishing of geographic and other maps.

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Libellarium (Online). ISSN 1846-9213 © 2008


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.